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Following death antibiotics for mild acne buy discount azitrocin 250mg on-line, calcium ions leak through the cell membrane antimicrobial body wash mrsa purchase azitrocin with mastercard, initiating the contraction process that allows the myosin cross bridges to bind to the actin filaments virus 07 best buy azitrocin. For years it was believed that muscle soreness was simply caused by a buildup of lactic acid within the muscle fibers during exercise bacteria size order azitrocin now. Although lactic acid accumulation probably is a factor related to soreness, recent research has shown that there is also damage to the contractile proteins within the muscle. If a muscle is used to exert an excessive force to lift a heavy object or to run a distance farther than it is conditioned to , some of the actin and myosin filaments become torn apart. This microscopic damage causes an inflammatory response that results in swelling and pain. A neuromuscular (myoneural) junction is the space between an axon terminal of a motor neuron axon terminal and the cell membrane as viewed histologically. The motor end plate is the combination of the Axon Synaptic vesicles Axon terminal Neurotransmitter chemical Synaptic gap Neurotransmitter receptors Subneural cleft Sarcolemma Figure 7. Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease in which a person has developed antibodies that bind to and block the receptors for acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. As a result, transmission of the signal across the neuromuscular junction is significantly reduced, causing muscle weakness. A motor unit consists of a single motor neuron together with the specific skeletal muscle fibers rvey that it innervates. Few motor units are recruited when fine, highly coordinated movements are being performed. In some large muscles, such as in the back or thigh, a large motor unit may contain 200 to 500 muscle fibers. In some small muscles that are involved in precise movements, such as those in the face and hands. The response of a muscle fiber to an electrical stimulation has three phases (fig. Skeletal muscle fibers are grouped according to biochemical performance characteristics into three different categories: fast-twitch fibers, intermediate fibers, and slow-twitch fibers (table 7. For example, one person may have more fast-twitch fibers in a particular muscle than another person. Conditioning appears to have some ability to change the profile of muscle fiber types. Aerobic slow-twitch fibers (also called slow-oxidative or type I fibers) are highly resistant to fatigue. The characteristics of intermediate fibers differ somewhat from fiber to fiber but lie on the continuum between fast-twitch and slow-twitch fibers. The strength of a muscle contraction is determined by the size and number of motor units that are recruited to perform the specific task. This means that when a motor unit is stimulated, all of the muscle fibers in that unit will contract. Therefore, the larger the motor unit being recruited, the greater the force that is generated. The brain learns through experience about how many motor units it takes to perform a certain task. For instance, more motor units are recruited to smash a walnut than to crack an egg. However, some objects appear heavier (or lighter) than they really are and thereby trick the mind into thinking that more (or fewer) motor units should be recruited than are actually needed. A single action potential to the muscle fibers of a motor unit produces a muscle twitch, or a very rapid (not sustained) contraction (fig. If impulses are applied to a muscle in rapid succession through several motor units, one twitch will not have completely ended before the next begins. Therefore, because the muscle is already in a partially contracted state when the second twitch begins. The additional shortening due to a rapid succession of two or more action potentials is termed summation. Relaxation of the muscle fiber is either partial (incomplete tetanus) or does not occur at all (complete tetanus). Tetanus Muscle contractile rsponse Twitch Summation Action potentials Time (ms) Figure 7. The bacterium Clostridium tetani is the causative agent of the disease tetanus (not to be confused with the normal manner of muscle contraction). The metabolic activity of this bacterium produces a toxin that interferes with the enzymes that break down neurotransmitters within the synaptic junctions. The presence of these neurotransmitters causes a constant action potential to be sent by the nerve to the muscle tissue, resulting in spasmodic contractions (tetany) of the muscle. When these painful, exhausting spasms occur in the masseter muscles (used for closing the jaw), the condition is commonly referred to as "lockjaw. During isometric contraction, the length of the muscle stays the same because the antagonist force equals the force in the muscle being contracted. An isometric contraction becomes an isotonic contraction when increased force generated within the muscle overcomes the resistance, resulting in the muscle shortening. Skeletal muscle tissue, in association with connective tissue, is characterized by an organized tion of the contracting muscle fibers. Loose fibrous connective tissues bind muscles at various levels to unify the force of contraction. Composed of dense regular connective tissue (see chapter 4), tendons are strong, flexible structures that secure muscles to bones. More specifically, a tendon secures the fascia of a muscle to the periosteum of a bone.
Muscle fibers crossing perpendicular to the two other muscle systems and coursing outwardly bacterial replication effective azitrocin 500 mg. Frontally-located antibiotic resistance who report 2014 cheap azitrocin 250mg without prescription, round antibiotic resistance kenya purchase azitrocin 500mg free shipping, variably colored disk about 10-12 mm in diameter virus lesson plans purchase 500mg azitrocin with visa, with a central aperture (pupil). Lateral (external) margin of iris attached to ciliary body at the iridocorneal angle. Ciliary segment of the iris, and outer cirucular zone on the anterior surface of the iris. Its diameter varies depending upon the intensity of light and the focal distance of the observed object. Network of spirally coursing muscle fibers the longitudinal axes of which run approximately parallel to the pupillary margin when the pupil is dilated. Its anterior and posterior portions are thicker than the rest and are divided by a fine fibrous network. It is so heavily pigmented that no nuclei are visible on the surface facing the posterior chamber. It is formed by anastomoses between the long and short posterior ciliary arteries. Ringlike vascular system in the vicinity of the pupillary margin formed by anastomoses between the radial branches of the greater arterial circle. Anterior part of embryonical vascular membrane around the lens that is situated behind the pupil. It lines the posterior aspect of the eyeball and extends as far anteriorly as the ora serrata. Retina proper consisting essentially of three nuclear layers lying internal to the pigment epithelium. It consists of rods and cones, the outer segments of which affect the transformation of light stimuli into nerve impulses. Cell bodies of rods and cones form the outermost layer of the retinal nuclei (external nuclear layer). Middle layer of cell nuclei mainly consisting of the cell bodies of bipolar and amacrine cells. Internal layer of nuclei consisting of multipolar cell bodies of initially non-myelinated ganglion cells the axons of which form the optic nerve. Serrated margin between the light-sensitive and light-insensitive parts of the neural retina. Light-insensitive retinal segment consisting of a bilayered cuboidal epithelium (ciliary epithelium) forming the posterior surface of the ciliary body. Its outer layer of epithelium is continuous with the pigment epithelium of the retina and is pigmented, whereas the innermost epithelium is continuous with the pars nervosa of the retina and is devoid of pigment. It is continuous with the pars ciliaris retinae and forms the bilayered posterior epithelium of the iris. B Sense organs 359 1 2 3 8 9 16 2 6 1 4 5 6 14 12 7 8 9 10 15 11 5 13 13 12 13 3 4 12 28 5 27 10 26 2 A Iris, schematic 14 15 16 17 18 19 26 19 20 C Ora serrata retinae 20 21 25 24 22 23 21 22 23 24 B Sections of retina D Retinal layers 25 a a a 360 Sense organs 1 2 1 Optic disc (papilla). Beginning of the optic nerve as visualized in the fundus about 3-4 mm medial to the macula. Depression in the middle of the optic disc with the stems of the central retinal artery and vein. Transversely oval, yellowish area, 2-4 mm in diameter, at the posterior pole of the retina. Central fovea, a small depression in the macula caused by thinning of the upper retinal layers. Its diameter, measured from the beginning of the decrease in retinal thickness from one side to the other, is approximately 1-2 mm. Branches of the central retinal artery and vein located on the internal aspect of the retina. Small branches that supply and drain the medial part of retina proximal to the optic disc. Space that extends from the anterior surface of the iris to the posterior surface of the cornea and communicates with the posterior chamber via the pupil. It houses the trabecular meshwork, the interstices of which serve as passageways that drain aqueous humor into the sinus venosus sclerae. It extends from the iris and ciliary body to the anterior surface of the vitreous. It flows between the interstices of the suspensory ligaments of the lens to the anterior surface of the lens and then between the iris and lens to the pupil, through which it enters the anterior chamber. It consists of about 98% water and primarily contains traces of protein and NaCl and a mixture of fine fibrils which thicken near the surface to form a limiting membrane. Canal within the vitreous body formerly occupied by the embryonic hyaloid artery which degenerates in this region. The canal assumes a downward sagging corkscrew shape; it extends from the optic disc to the posterior surface of the lens. Primarily consists of mucupolysaccharides and is situated between the fibers of the stroma. It is suspended by the ciliary zonule (suspensory ligaments), has a diameter of 9-10 mm and is about 4 mm thick. Lens substance situated beneath the lens epithelium and comprising the lens nucleus and lens cortex with a refractive index of 1. It is softer owing to its high water content and blends into the lens nucleus without a sharp boundary. Harder core of the lens with a low water content, as is especially evident in the elderly.
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The blood that flows from cuts made at post-mortem examination is due to passive collapse of the walls of veins and arteries as their walls are incised antibiotics classes buy azitrocin 500 mg otc. Postmortem decomposition occurs at all times of the year in animals that die outdoors infection medicine buy 250 mg azitrocin with amex, but the rate varies with reflected in the blood of an animal postmortem antibiotic resistant bacteria uti order azitrocin 500mg free shipping. While all blood can be thought of as hypoxic when the carcass of a dead animal is opened antibiotic resistance hospital acquired infections order on line azitrocin, close observation and experience will reveal differences in degree that allow differentiation of significant antemortem hypoxia occurring as a cause of death from hypoxia due to the endstage of other more important processes. Characteristically, when an animal is hypoxic for any length of time prior to death, the blood is dark and unclotted, even in the major vessels and heart. Blood that is adequately oxygenated at the time of death will be well clotted, especially in the heart and major vessels. In addition, in the left ventricle and aorta, it will be a distinctly brighter red than elsewhere. Animals that have died slowly with gradually failing circulatory or respiratory systems will have associated metabolic changes that are grossly visible as varying degrees of paleness and swelling of the liver. The microscopic correlate of this change is parenchymatous degeneration of hepatocytes, a change that may be mentioned in histopathology reports received from reference laboratories. The actual event of death is often accompanied by either aspiration or passive flow of gastric/rumen content into the larynx, trachea, or lung. Postmortem shifting of a carcass such as occurs when positioning it prior to examination, may also result in gastric/rumen content being introduced into the respiratory tract. It is important, the necropsy in veterinary medicine 9 mummification: drying and shrinking of non-durable parts. At the cellular level, death does not necessarily occur at one defined point in time as it does with the organism as a whole. Different cell types commence and progress through these stages at different rates. The absolute requirement of a particular cell type for oxygen and other nutrients largely determines when the processes that ultimately lead to cell death commence, and how fast each cell will progress through these various stages. The various stages of cell death have been correlated with various microscopically observable anatomic changes. For example, in Canada, all domestic cattle must have a federally registered ear tag. The prosector is responsible for ensuring that this is done prior to commencing the postmortem examination. Each species tends to have a different generally accepted method of identification. Horses may have a lip tattoo, and are usually also described by the environmental temperature and is generally more rapid during the summer and fall. Decomposition is influenced by various factors that modify the accumulation and dissipation of heat such as thickness and type of haircoat, physiological condition of the animal at the time of death, rates of rumen fermentation and amount of body fat. The rate at which various animals decompose varies from species to species under the same environmental conditions. Insects will invade the carcasses of animals that die outdoors, and sequential changes in the populations of these occur. Some specific aspects of the postmortem decomposition of ruminants are presented elsewhere (9) Rigor mortis is the postmortem change that is most familiar to the veterinarian. Rigor is usually gone by 36 hours, but its speed of onset, progression and termination depend on a variety of conditions. These include physiological condition of the animal at death, amount and distribution of body fat, type and thickness of the haircoat and ambient temperature, among many others. In veterinary medicine livor mortis is seen most commonly in thin haired animals such as pigs, and will be present but not visible in animals with heavy haircoats. Dessication is a much longer term postmortem change which leads to the necropsy in veterinary medicine 10 of struggle or convulsions should be noted. Ruminant animals that become trapped underneath feeders or fences, or are heavily pregnant and are lying in hollows in the ground and are unable to move can bloat rapidly, and these features should be noted. Any damage to fences, possible toxic substances in the vicinity, old batteries, junk piles, etc. When an animal has been moved from its environment and taken to a clinic or laboratory for examination, the owner should be questioned about the environment and the farm operation and this information should be recorded as part of the history prior to the necropsy examination. Animals that are presented alive should be given a clinical examination prior to euthanasia. Before any incisions are made in the carcass of an animal presented dead, an examination should be conducted from a short distance and then up close. The way in which the carcass is lying should be observed, as well as abnormalities such as blood or froth coming from the oral or nasal cavity, exudates or discharges from any body orifice, external damage such as scavenging of the carcass and any other information that may be useful such as bird droppings on the top line of the carcass. Many companion species are microchipped, and microchip numbers need to be verified and recorded. In other species, specific colour patterns and marks or tags that will identify the animal should be noted. This latter point is very important both for identification and potential forensic purposes. The subconscious thought is that the animal is dead and so the old, worn out equipment can be used for necropsies. This is a fallacy, as good quality, sharp instruments make the job easier and yield the best results whether in surgery or in the postmortem suite. Additional to the difficulties of working with dull and/or broken instruments there is the tissue damage and artefact caused by crushing, shearing and tearing that results from poor instruments. For farm animals, the type of operation, the method of feeding and the place in which the animal died are all important information. The way in which the carcass in lying and any signs the necropsy in veterinary medicine 11 be positioned for incision.
Transitional epithelium is similar to nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium pediatric antibiotics for sinus infection buy azitrocin 250mg cheap, except that the surface cells of the former are large and round rather than flat treatment for feline uti generic 100mg azitrocin otc, and they may have two nuclei antibiotic macrobid discount azitrocin express. Transitional epithelium is specialized to permit distention of the ureters and urinary bladder and to withstand the toxicity of urine antibiotic induced diarrhea treatment purchase azitrocin 100 mg on line. Distention is possible because the transitional epithelial cells are able to change their shape, sometimes resembling cuboidal cells and sometimes squamous cells. The appearance and relative numbers of cells in an epithelial lining can be very meaningful to a pathologist. Too many or two few cells of a certain type or abnormal levels of secreted products may signal that an organ is diseased or dysfunctional. In conducting an autopsy, a pathologist carefully examines the linings of cavities and organs in the body for signs of such irregularities. The presence of excessive mucus or pus might indicate that a particular organ was combating an infection. Objective C To define glandular epithelial tissue and to describe the formation, classification, and function of exocrine glands. By contrast, endocrine glands lack ducts and secrete their products (hormones) directly into the bloodstream. During prenatal development, certain epithelial cells invade the underlying connective tissue and 4. Exocrine glands within the integumentary system include sebaceous (oil-secreting) glands, sudoriferous (sweat) glands, and mammary glands. Within the digestive system, exocrine glands include the salivary glands, gastric glands within the stomach, and the pancreatic gland. Ulcers are stress related and are accompanied by excessive secretion of hydrochloric acid within the stomach by parietal cells. One of the most important components of connective tissue is the fluid-based matrix, consisting rvey of secreted organic material of varying composition that binds widely separated cells of the tissue. It supports and binds other tissues, stores nutrients, and/or manufactures protective and regulatory materials. Throughout the embryo, pockets of undifferentiated connective tissue called mesenchyme give rise to all forms of mature connective tissues. Note that one of these, blood tissue, differs from the rest in having a fluid matrix. Scurvy is characterized by a loss of collagen, the main structural protein in many connective tissues (see table 4. Scurvy is caused by a dietary deficiency of vitamin C, which is a necessary factor in the formation of collagenous fibers. The resulting symptoms include skin sores, spongy gums, weak blood vessels, and poor healing of wounds. Because it contains cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets) and matrix (blood plasma), blood is considered a viscous connective tissue (see chapter 13). Cartilage is avascular and must therefore receive nutrients through diffusion from surrounding tissue. For this reason, cartilaginous tissue has a low rate of mitotic activity and, if damaged, heals slowly. The cells of adipose tissue contain large vacuoles adapted to store lipids, or fats. Overfeeding an infant during the first year, when adipocytes (adipose cells) are forming, causes excessive amounts of adipose tissue to develop. A person with a lot of adipose tissue is more susceptible to developing obesity later in life than a person with a lesser amount. The procedure of liposuction surgically removes depositions of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Although variations of this procedure exist, typically, a suction canula is inserted under the skin, and an anesthetic fluid is injected into the region. The canula is then moved rapidly under the skin, liquefying the adipocytes, which are removed via suction. With the loss of adipocytes, the cells are no longer available to store excess lipids. The physical removal of this tissue represents a relatively permanent form of weight loss and body contouring. All are specialized cells of different types of connective tissue; they are compared in table 4. Approximately 11% of the body fluid is found within loose connective tissue, where it is known as tissue fluid or interstitial fluid. Sometimes excessive tissue fluid accumulates, causing the swollen condition known as edema. Most bones of the skeleton are composed of compact (dense) bone tissue and spongy (cancellous) bone tissue. Compact bone tissue is the hard outer layer, whereas spongy bone tissue is the porous, highly vascular inner portion. Compact bone tissue is covered by the periosteum, which serves for attachment of tendons from muscles. Spongy bone tissue makes the bone lighter and provides a space for bone marrow, where blood cells are produced. The hardness of bone is largely due to the calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate salts deposited within the intracellular (inorganic) matrix. Numerous collagenous fibers, also embedded within the matrix, give some flexibility to bone tissue. Objective E Su To describe muscle tissue and to distinguish between the three types. Through the property of contractility, muscle tissues cause movement of materials through the rvey body, movement of one part of the body with respect to another, and locomotion.